Endurance and ways to increase it
Very often on the tracks of hippodromes it is possible to see how horses, quite briskly passing the first half of the distance, at the end of it “pass” and show mediocre results. Upas a lot of trotting horses, showing 29-30 seconds, 400 m or race with the result faster 30 seconds. at 500 m, but the records of horses at a distance of more than 1000 m are in the majority significantly inferior to representatives of Western European and American horse breeding.
It is enough to analyze the course of the races of Garnier, Run, Zadorny, Anilin in the Grand Washington Prize, as well as a number of trotting horses in international prizes in France, Sweden, Holland, to make sure that “they gave up victories or prizes right before the finish. Mm did not have enough stamina or “stamina” in maintaining high speed at a distance.
In a ton of sport, you can often see how competitive horses make more mistakes in the second half of the parkour, and triathlon at the end of the cross-country race. Many try to explain these facts, on the one hand, a lack of breeding work, and on the other hand, gaps in the training system. In recent years, much has been done to improve the breeding work in trotting and riding horse breeding, as well as in the question of “training horses.
A training system for triathlon horses was created, which allowed Soviet riders twice (in 1962 and 1965) to win the title of European champions, and recommendations were developed for training trotters and riding horses, to some extent contributing to the progress of agility on the tracks of hippodromes. These recommendations contain general installations for increasing the volume and intensity of training loads, which is the basis for improving the performance of horses.
However, the development of functionality and performance of horses in order to improve the results on the tracks of racetracks can only be carried out on the condition of a deeper and clearer detailing of the training systems and highlighting the main direction in improving the motor qualities of horses.
Given the above, we can say that at the present stage, first of all, it is necessary to direct efforts to the issue of increasing the endurance of horses, both mounted and trotting.
What is endurance? From the point of view of a general biological concept, endurance is the body’s resistance to the effects of various external and internal factors. Endurance during muscular activity is the ability of the body to perform long-term work without reducing its effectiveness. However, it is known that muscular work causes fatigue, therefore the concept of endurance is inseparable from the concept of fatigue. Consequently, endurance is the property of an organism to preserve its working capacity for some period of time, overcoming the onset of fatigue.
Sometimes endurance during muscular work must be combined with endurance to any adverse factors (increased or decreased air temperature, chronic hypoxia, change of the time belt, etc.). Endurance primarily depends on the coordination of the flow of excitatory and inhibitory processes in the central nervous system, on the intensity of energy metabolism, on the correspondence of the nature and pace of work to the functional capabilities of a number of systems and organs.
During muscular work in horses, energy consumption increases significantly and can exceed the initial level in the state of relative rest by 50-60 times (Carlsen GG). In this regard, there are high demands on the respiratory, circulatory, blood system. Often, performance at maximum loads (jump or prize] is limited by the lack of functionality of these systems of the horse. In these cases it is often said “not enough breath”.
Studies of the chemistry of muscle contraction have shown that adenosine triphosphoric acid (ATP) is one of the main sources of energy. Since the amount of ATP in cells is small, its resynthesis (recovery) is continuously performed in the body. The initial period of muscular work (10-20 sec.), Regardless of its intensity, is accompanied by anaerobic (oxygen-free) ATP resynthesis reactions. Subsequently, the aerobic (oxygen) phase of resintea ATP, characterized by the oxidation of carbohydrates and fats and their decomposition products (lactic and pyruvic acid, glycerin and fatty acids), begins to predominate.
During aerobic oxidation of these substances, new, energy-rich phosphate groups are formed, which are involved in the reduction of ATP. Consequently, endurance, from a biochemical point of view, is mainly determined by the potential of aerobic oxidative processes, as well as the size of the body’s energy reserves.